Center for Local, State, and Urban Policy

The National Surveys on Energy and Environment (NSEE)
Spring 2018 Data Tables



Survey Methodology
N 751 (146 Land Line & 605 Cell Phone)
Margin of Error +/-4.0%
Fielding Dates April 29, 2018 - May 25, 2018
AAPOR RR3 Response Rate 8%
Data tables below are weighted by Gender, Age, Race, Income, and Education


Table of Contents

    Introduction

  1. Respondent's age
  2. Respondent's place of residence
  3. Perceptions of Local Weather

  4. Temperatures in past winter
  5. Snow amount in past winter
  6. Global Warming

  7. Belief in global warming
  8. Global warming threat
  9. Confidence in belief of global warming
  10. Cause of global warming
  11. Factor that caused belief in global warming
  12. Concern about global warming
  13. Factors that affected view
  14. Doubt in Global Warming

  15. Confidence in belief of no global warming
  16. Factor that caused belief of no global warming
  17. Factors that affected view
  18. Fuel Efficiency and Emissions Standards

  19. Support or oppose requiring average fuel economy of 54.5 mpg by 2025
  20. Support or oppose lowering fuel efficiency standards
  21. Whether California should be allowed to set higher emissions standards
  22. Carbon Pricing

  23. Support or oppose putting a price on carbon pollution
  24. If it increases cost by 42 cents per gallon
  25. Willingness to Pay

  26. Willingness to pay for more renewable energy
  27. Demographics

  28. Racial identity
  29. Religious affiliation
  30. Are you an evangelical Christian?
  31. Highest level of education
  32. Primary source for news
  33. Political party affiliation
  34. Political beliefs
  35. Family income
  36. Gender



Hello. My name is _________ and I'm a student at Muhlenberg College. We are conducting a research project regarding environmental issues in the United States. Would you be able to help us by answering a few questions?

Q1. Thank you. Can you please tell me in which year you were born? [CODED INTO CATEGORIES]

  Total
Thank you. Can you please tell me in which year you were born? [CODED INTO CATEGORIES] 18-29 24%
30-44 24%
45-64 27%
65 and older 21%
Refused, but stated they are 18 or over 4%
N 751
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q2. What state do you currently reside in? [CODED INTO REGIONS]

  Total
What state do you currently reside in? [CODED INTO REGIONS] Northeast 18%
South 39%
Midwest 21%
West 23%
N 740
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q3. In general how would you describe the overall weather in your area this past winter? Would you say it was:

  Total
In general how would you describe the overall weather in your area this past winter? Would you say it was: A lot warmer than usual 14%
Slightly warmer than usual 19%
Slightly cooler than usual 17%
A lot cooler than usual 19%
About the same as usual 27%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5%
N 751
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q4. Which of the following best describes the amount of snow your area received this past winter? My area received:

  Total
Which of the following best describes the amount of snow your area received this past winter? My area received: A lot more snow than usual 10%
A little more snow than usual 15%
A little less snow than usual 17%
A lot less snow than usual 16%
About the same as usual 20%
Area does not receive snow 19%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 3%
N 751
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q5. Next, I would like to ask you a few questions on the issue of global warming. From what you've read and heard. Is there solid evidence that the average temperature on earth has been getting warmer over the past four decades?

  Total
Next, I would like to ask you a few questions on the issue of global warming. From what you've read and heard. Is there solid evidence that the average temperature on earth has been getting warmer over the past four decades? Yes 73%
No 15%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 12%
N 751
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q6. On a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 being no threat at all and 10 being an extreme threat, to what extent to you see climate change as ...? [SPLIT SAMPLE]

  A threat A threat to you personally A threat to the United States A threat to the world
On a scale from 0 to 10, with 0 being no threat at all and 10 being an extreme threat, to what extent to you see climate change as ...? [SPLIT SAMPLE] 0: No threat at all 3% 7% 2% 2%
1 4% 8% 4% 5%
2 7% 7% 8% 6%
3 12% 17% 9% 6%
4 8% 7% 6% 5%
5 8% 10% 7% 11%
6 10% 6% 7% 10%
7 9% 9% 9% 7%
8 11% 11% 10% 13%
9 6% 1% 5% 5%
10: An extreme threat 13% 11% 18% 18%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 8% 6% 16% 12%
N 177 168 199 193
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q7. How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is increasing?

  Total
How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is increasing? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Very Confident 62%
Fairly Confident 29%
Not Too Confident 5%
Not Confident At All 1%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 547
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q8. Is the earth getting warmer because of human activity such as burning fossil fuels, or mostly because of natural patterns in the earth’s environment?

  Total
Is the earth getting warmer because of human activity such as burning fossil fuels, or mostly because of natural patterns in the earth’s environment? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Human Activity 47%
Natural Patterns 16%
A Combination (Volunteered) 31%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5%
N 546
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q9. What is the primary factor that has caused you to believe that temperatures on earth are increasing? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
What is the primary factor that has caused you to believe that temperatures on earth are increasing? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) [Coded open-end response] Declining Glaciers and Polar Ice 8%
Warmer Temperatures Observed 19%
Weather Changes 12%
Scientific Research/Data 14%
Media Coverage 7%
Declining Species 1%
Human Activity 18%
Natural Patterns 2%
Ocean / Sea-level Rise 2%
Religious Factors 1%
Population Growth 1%
Growing Season / Plants 0%
A combination of human activity and natural patterns 1%
Not Sure/Other 14%
N 547
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q10. How concerned are you about the issue of global warming? Are you very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not concerned at all about the issue of global warming?

  Total
How concerned are you about the issue of global warming? Are you very concerned, somewhat concerned, not too concerned, or not concerned at all about the issue of global warming? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Very Concerned 43%
Somewhat Concerned 38%
Not Too Concerned 12%
Not Concerned At All 5%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1%
N 547
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q11-16. Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. [ROTATED LIST]

  Declining glaciers and polar ice throughout the globe Warmer temperatures in your area during recent years The strength of hurricanes hitting the United States Milder winters in your area Severe droughts in areas across the United States Extreme weather events such as major storms and floods
Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer.  For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) [ROTATED LIST] Very Large 58% 38% 51% 29% 47% 47%
Somewhat Large 27% 34% 25% 31% 29% 29%
Not Too Large 5% 14% 9% 16% 10% 12%
No Effect 6% 10% 11% 19% 8% 9%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5% 4% 4% 5% 7% 3%
N 547 547 547 547 547 547
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q17. How confident are you that the average temperatures on earth are not increasing?  Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident, or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is not increasing?

  Total
How confident are you that the average temperatures on earth are not increasing?  Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is not increasing? (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) Very Confident 39%
Fairly Confident 35%
Not Too Confident 13%
Not Confident At All 3%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10%
N 111
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q18. What is the primary factor that makes you believe that temperatures on earth are not increasing? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
What is the primary factor that makes you believe that temperatures on earth are not increasing? (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) [Coded open-end response] Personal Observations 40%
Natural Patterns 12%
Not Enough Evidence 11%
Media has Misled <1%
Evidence Disproves 10%
Religious Factors 2%
Political Factors 4%
No Particular Reason 2%
Not Sure/Other 19%
N 112
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q19-21. Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. [ROTATED LIST]

  Your personal observations of weather in your area Scientific evidence that disproves the existence of global warming Reports that climate scientists have distorted data to demonstrate that global warming is occurring
Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) [ROTATED LIST] Very Large 31% 21% 27%
Somewhat Large 16% 14% 16%
Not Too Large 10% 11% 9%
No Effect 38% 43% 36%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4% 10% 13%
N 112 109 110
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q22. In 2012, the federal government increased the average fuel economy of new cars and trucks from 30.2 miles per gallon to 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. Do you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this fuel economy requirement?

  Total
In 2012, the federal government increased the average fuel economy of new cars and trucks from 30.2 miles per gallon to 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. Do you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this fuel economy requirement? Strongly Support 39%
Somewhat Support 25%
Somewhat Oppose 9%
Strongly Oppose 13%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 13%
N 750
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q23. Recently the Environmental Protection Agency initiated a process to lower the fuel efficiency standards established in 2012. Under this proposal, automakers would not have to meet the standards of 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. Do you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this proposal to lower the federal fuel efficiency requirements?

  Total
Recently the Environmental Protection Agency initiated a process to lower the fuel efficiency standards established in 2012. Under this proposal, automakers would not have to meet the standards of 54.5 miles per gallon by 2025. Do you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this proposal to lower the federal fuel efficiency requirements? Strongly Support 16%
Somewhat Support 17%
Somewhat Oppose 18%
Strongly Oppose 36%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 14%
N 748
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q24. For the last 50 years, a federal law has given California the ability to set stricter standards for vehicle emissions than those set in Washington, DC. If the federal government were to lower the fuel efficiency requirement for automakers, California has stated that it will seek to maintain its existing vehicle emissions standards for new cars and trucks sold in the state. Do you think that California should or should not be allowed to maintain this standard if the federal government lowers the national standard?

  Total
For the last 50 years, a federal law has given California the ability to set stricter standards for vehicle emissions than those set in Washington, DC. If the federal government were to lower the fuel efficiency requirement for automakers, California has stated that it will seek to maintain its existing vehicle emissions standards for new cars and trucks sold in the state. Do you think that California should or should not be allowed to maintain this standard if the federal government lowers the national standard? Should be allowed 61%
Should not be allowed 25%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 14%
N 745
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q25. There have been a number of ideas proposed for how governments can reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. For each of the following policy options I read please indicate if you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose that option. First ... [SPLIT SAMPLE]

  Putting a price on carbon pollution. Putting a price on carbon pollution with the revenue returned by lowering other personal taxes, such as income taxes.
There have been a number of ideas proposed for how governments can reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. For each of the following policy options I read please indicate if you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose that option. First ... [SPLIT SAMPLE] Strongly Support 31% 32%
Somewhat Support 24% 29%
Somewhat Oppose 14% 9%
Strongly Oppose 17% 13%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 14% 18%
N 371 374
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q26. Next putting a price on carbon pollution that would... [SPLIT SAMPLE]

  ... increase the price of gasoline by 42 cents per gallon. ... increase the price of gasoline by 42 cents per gallon with the revenue returned by lowering other personal taxes, such as income taxes
Next putting a price on carbon pollution that would... [SPLIT SAMPLE] Strongly Support 13% 16%
Somewhat Support 16% 24%
Somewhat Oppose 15% 16%
Strongly Oppose 48% 32%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 8% 12%
N 374 375
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q27. If it required you to pay extra money each year in order for more renewable energy to be produced, how much would you be willing to pay? Would you be willing to pay… [READ LIST]

  Total
If it required you to pay extra money each year in order for more renewable energy to be produced, how much would you be willing to pay? Would you be willing to pay… [READ LIST] Nothing each year 27%
1 to 50 dollars per year 21%
50 to 100 dollars a year 18%
100 to 250 dollars a year 12%
250 to 500 dollars a year 7%
Over 500 dollars a year 6%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 9%
N 747
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Finally a few questions about yourself.

Q28. Which of the following categories best describes your racial identity? Are you [READ LIST]

  Total
Finally a few questions about yourself. Which of the following categories best describes your racial identity? Are you [READ LIST] White/Caucasian 59%
African-American 12%
Hispanic 12%
Latino 3%
Asian 5%
Native American 1%
Mixed Race 4%
Other 3%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1%
N 738
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q29. Which of the following categories best describes your religious affiliation? Are you [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following categories best describes your religious affiliation? Are you [READ LIST] Protestant 29%
Catholic 25%
Jewish 2%
Muslim 1%
Hindu 1%
Other Religion (Including Agnostic) 28%
Atheist 6%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 7%
N 719
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q30. Would you describe yourself as an evangelical Christian?

  Total
Would you describe yourself as an evangelical Christian? (Among those who identified as Protestant) Yes 44%
No 45%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10%
N 211
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q31. What is your highest level of education? [READ LIST]

  Total
What is your highest level of education? [READ LIST] Less Than High School Graduate 5%
High School Graduate 27%
Some College or Technical School 29%
College Graduate 24%
Graduate or Professional Degree 14%
Not Sure (Volunteered) <1%
N 744
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q32. Which of the following is your primary source for national and world news? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following is your primary source for national and world news? [READ LIST] Television 38%
Newspapers 6%
Talk Radio Programs 4%
Radio News Programs 4%
The Internet 41%
Other (Volunteered) 5%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1%
N 746
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q33. Which of the following best describes your political party affiliation? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following best describes your political party affiliation? [READ LIST] Democrat 31%
Republican 23%
Other Party 8%
Independent 31%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 7%
N 727
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q34. Which of the following best describes your political beliefs? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following best describes your political beliefs? [READ LIST] Very Conservative 11%
Somewhat Conservative 20%
Moderate 33%
Somewhat Liberal 15%
Very Liberal 11%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10%
N 731
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q35. Which of the following categories best describes your family income? Is it [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following categories best describes your family income? Is it [READ LIST] Less than 20,000 15%
20,000 - 40,000 19%
40,000 - 60,000 18%
60,000 - 80,000 14%
80,000 - 100,000 11%
Over 100,000 19%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5%
N 695
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q37. Finally to which gender identity do you most identify? [READ LIST]

  Total
Finally to which gender identity do you most identify? [READ LIST] Male 49%
Female 50%
Transgender Male <1%
Transgender Female <1%
You do not identify as male or female 1%
Other (Volunteered) <1%
Not sure (Volunteered) <1%
N 747
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Thank you for your help with the survey. We appreciate your time.