Center for Local, State, and Urban Policy

The National Surveys on Energy and Environment (NSEE)
Fall 2018 Data Tables



Survey Methodology
N 800 (164 Land Line & 636 Cell Phone)
Margin of Error +/-3.4%
Fielding Dates September 18, 2018 - October 19, 2018
AAPOR RR3 Response Rate 7%
Data tables below are weighted by Gender, Age, Race, Income, and Education


Table of Contents

    Introduction

  1. Respondent's age
  2. Respondent's place of residence
  3. Perceptions of Local Weather

  4. Temperatures in past summer
  5. Temperatures in past winter
  6. Global Warming

  7. Belief in global warming
  8. Confidence in belief of global warming
  9. Cause of global warming
  10. Primary cause of global warming
  11. Seriousness of global warming
  12. Factor that caused belief in global warming
  13. Factors that affected view
  14. Doubt in Global Warming

  15. Confidence in belief of no global warming
  16. Factor that caused belief of no global warming
  17. Extreme Weather

  18. Role of climate change in extreme weather events
  19. Global Warming Policy and Politics

  20. Agree or disagree
  21. Approval of Donald Trump's handling of global warming
  22. Effect of candidate's position on global warming on vote in midterm election
  23. Renewable Energy

  24. Policy options to reduce emissions
  25. Carbon Tax

  26. Carbon tax generally
  27. If carbon tax passed in exchange for restricting the ability of the EPA to set separate regulations on greenhouse gases?
  28. If revenue neutral
  29. If revenues used for transportation infrastructure
  30. If revenues used for energy efficiency improvements
  31. If revenues used for renewable energy projects
  32. Support for extraction tax
  33. If revenue returned to state
  34. Attitudes about Renewable Energy

  35. Benefits of renewable energy
  36. Willingness to pay for more renewable energy
  37. Demographics

  38. Racial identity
  39. Religious affiliation
  40. View about Bible
  41. Hours listening to religious media
  42. Highest level of education
  43. Political party affiliation
  44. Political beliefs
  45. Agreement with Donald Trump
  46. Family income
  47. Gender



Hello. My name is _________ and I'm a student at Muhlenberg College. We are conducting a research project regarding environmental issues in the United States. Would you be able to help us by answering a few questions?

Q1. Thank you. Can you please tell me in which year you were born? [CODED INTO CATEGORIES]

  Total
Thank you. Can you please tell me in which year you were born? [CODED INTO CATEGORIES] 18-29 23%
30-44 24%
45-64 26%
65 and older 19%
Refused, but stated they are 18 or over 8%
N 800
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q2. What state do you currently reside in? [CODED INTO REGIONS]

  Total
What state do you currently reside in? [CODED INTO REGIONS] Northeast 12%
South 33%
Midwest 24%
West 31%
N 800
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q3. In general how would you describe the overall weather in your area this past summer? Would you say it was:

  Total
In general how would you describe the overall weather in your area this past summer? Would you say it was: A lot warmer than usual 26%
Slightly warmer than usual 26%
Slightly cooler than usual

10%

A lot cooler than usual 3%
About the same as usual 31%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 798
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q4. Now thinking back to last winter how would you describe the overall weather in your area. Would you say the weather last winter was:

  Total
Now thinking back to last winter how would you describe the overall weather in your area. Would you say the weather last winter was: A lot warmer than usual 12%
Slightly warmer than usual 30%
Slightly cooler than usual 12%
A lot cooler than usual 7%
About the same as usual 34%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5%
N 799
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q5. Next, I would like to ask you a few questions on the issue of global warming. From what you've read and heard. Is there solid evidence that the average temperature on earth has been getting warmer over the past four decades?

  Total
Next, I would like to ask you a few questions on the issue of global warming. From what you've read and heard. Is there solid evidence that the average temperature on earth has been getting warmer over the past four decades? Yes 73%
No 16%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 12%
N 798
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q6. How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is increasing?

  Total
How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is increasing? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Very Confident 61%
Fairly Confident 30%
Not Too Confident 5%
Not Confident At All 1%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 579
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q7. Is the earth getting warmer because of human activity such as burning fossil fuels, or mostly because of natural patterns in the earth’s environment?

  Total
Is the earth getting warmer because of human activity such as burning fossil fuels, or mostly because of natural patterns in the earth’s environment? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Human Activity 48%
Natural Patterns 18%
A Combination (Volunteered) 26%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 8%
N 577
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q8. I know you say it’s a combination, but if you had to choose, would you say that temperatures on earth are rising mostly because of human activity or mostly because of natural patterns?

  Total
I know you say it’s a combination, but if you had to choose, would you say that temperatures on earth are rising mostly because of human activity or mostly because of natural patterns? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Human Activity 62%
Natural Patterns 19%
Equal (Volunteered) 14%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5%
N 150
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q9. In your view is global warming a very serious problem, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not a problem?

  Total
In your view is global warming a very serious problem, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not a problem? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Very Serious 65%
Somewhat Serious 23%
Not Too Serious 6%
Not a Problem 3%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 3%
N 579
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q10. What is the primary factor that has caused you to believe that temperatures on earth are increasing? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
What is the primary factor that has caused you to believe that temperatures on earth are increasing? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) [Coded open-end response] Declining Glaciers and Polar Ice 9%
Warmer Temperatures Observed 24%
Weather Changes 18%
Scientific Research/Data 16%
Al Gore's Documentary <1%
Media Coverage 5%
Declining Species 1%
Human Activity 11%
Natural Patterns 2%
Ocean / Sea-level Rise 1%
Religious Factors <1%
Population Growth <1%
Growing Season / Plants 1%
Not Sure/Other 12%
N 579
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q11-15. Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. [ROTATED LIST]

  Declining glaciers and polar ice throughout the globe Warmer temperatures in your area during recent years The strength of hurricanes hitting the United States Milder winters in your area Severe droughts in areas across the United States
Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer.  For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer.” (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) [ROTATED LIST] Very Large 62% 41% 47% 29% 47%
Somewhat Large 25% 38% 27% 33% 28%
Not Too Large 3% 12% 10% 19% 9%
No Effect 5% 6% 8% 13% 7%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4% 3% 9% 6% 8%
N 574 579 576 575 574
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q16. How confident are you that the average temperatures on earth are not increasing?  Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident, or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is not increasing?

  Total
How confident are you that the average temperatures on earth are not increasing?  Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is not increasing? (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) Very Confident 44%
Fairly Confident 29%
Not Too Confident 14%
Not Confident At All 6%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 6%
N 126
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q17. What is the primary factor that makes you believe that temperatures on earth are not increasing? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
What is the primary factor that makes you believe that temperatures on earth are not increasing? (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) [Coded open-end response] Personal Observations 33%
Natural Patterns 30%
Not Enough Evidence 9%
Media has Misled 3%
Evidence Disproves 4%
Religious Factors 2%
Political Factors 3%
No Particular Reason 2%
Not Sure/Other 14%
N 127
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q18. As you may have heard, parts of North America have recently experienced significant heat waves, flooding, wildfires, droughts, and hurricanes. What role, if any, would you say climate change has played in these extreme weather events? Would you say climate change has played a major role, some role, a minor role, or no role in these extreme weather events?

  Total
As you may have heard, parts of North America have recently experienced significant heat waves, flooding, wildfires, droughts, and hurricanes. What role, if any, would you say climate change has played in these extreme weather events? Would you say climate change has played a major role, some role, a minor role, or no role in these extreme weather events? Major Role 43%
Some Role 27%
Minor Role 12%
No Role 12%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 6%
N 799
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Please identify your level of agreement with the following statements. For each statement please indicate if you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree.

Q19. If the federal government fails to address the issue of global warming it is my state’s responsibility to address the problem.

  Total
If the federal government fails to address the issue of global warming it is my state’s responsibility to address the problem. Strongly Agree 36%
Somewhat Agree 30%
Somewhat Oppose 11%
Strongly Oppose 19%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 796
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q20. My state has already felt negative effects from global warming.

  Total
My state has already felt negative effects from global warming. Strongly Agree 29%
Somewhat Agree 30%
Somewhat Oppose 13%
Strongly Oppose 17%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10%
N 798
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q21. In general do you strongly approve, somewhat approve, somewhat disapprove or strongly disapprove of the way that President Donald Trump is handling the issue of global warming.

  Total
In general do you strongly approve, somewhat approve, somewhat disapprove or strongly disapprove of the way that President Donald Trump is handling the issue of global warming. Strongly Approve 19%
Somewhat Approve 13%
Somewhat Disapprove 15%
Strongly Disapprove 40%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 13%
N 798
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q22. In terms of your vote in the 2018 Congressional Midterm Election will a candidate’s position on the issue of global warming have a major effect, moderate effect, or no effect on your decision on who to vote for in the upcoming congressional election?

  Total
In terms of your vote in the 2018 Congressional Midterm Election will a candidate’s position on the issue of global warming have a major effect, moderate effect, or no effect on your decision on who to vote for in the upcoming congressional election? Major Effect 30%
Moderate Effect 30%
Minor Effect 9%
No Effect 28%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 3%
N 794
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Now I would like to ask you a few questions about government policy designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in your state.

Q23-26. For each of the following policy options I read please indicate if you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose your state adopting that policy as a means of reducing emissions? [ROTATED LIST]

  Increasing the use of wind energy in your state. Increasing the use of solar energy in your state. Your state government requiring that a set portion of all electricity come from renewable energy sources such as wind or solar. Your state government increasing subsidies for renewable energy sources such as wind or solar
For each of the following policy options I read please indicate if you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose your state adopting that policy as a means of reducing emissions? [ROTATED LIST] Strongly Support 57% 68% 54% 50%
Somewhat Support 25% 20% 24% 28%
Somewhat Oppose 5% 4% 6% 6%
Strongly Oppose 6% 5% 12% 10%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 7% 3% 4% 7%
N 797 795 799 800
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



I'm going to read off some proposed policies that would help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. For each idea that I mention please tell me if you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose the proposed ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Q27. First, the federal government increasing taxes on carbon based fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas.  Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a tax?

  Total
First, the federal government increasing taxes on carbon based fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas.  Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a tax? Strongly Support 22%
Somewhat Support 26%
Somewhat Oppose 16%
Strongly Oppose 30%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 6%
N 800
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q28. What if the carbon tax was passed in exchange for restricting the ability of the Environmental Protection Agency to set separate regulations on greenhouse gases? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system?

  Total
What if the carbon tax was passed in exchange for restricting the ability of the Environmental Protection Agency to set separate regulations on greenhouse gases? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system? Strongly Support 10%
Somewhat Support 24%
Somewhat Oppose 19%
Strongly Oppose 25%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 22%
N 799
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q29. What if the carbon tax was “revenue neutral,” meaning every dollar collected were returned to households through an annual dividend payment? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system? [ROTATED WITH Q30]

  Total
What if the carbon tax was “revenue neutral,” meaning every dollar collected were returned to households through an annual dividend payment? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system? [ROTATED WITH Q30] Strongly Support 36%
Somewhat Support 32%
Somewhat Oppose 11%
Strongly Oppose 15%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 6%
N 800
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q30. What if the revenue from the carbon tax was put into the highway trust fund to fund improvements to transportation infrastructure?    Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system? [ROTATED WITH Q29]

  Total
What if the revenue from the carbon tax was put into the highway trust fund to fund improvements to transportation infrastructure?    Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system? [ROTATED WITH Q29] Strongly Support 36%
Somewhat Support 32%
Somewhat Oppose 11%
Strongly Oppose 15%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 6%
N 800
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q31. What if the revenue from the carbon tax was reinvested in energy efficiency improvements that help homes and businesses reduce their electricity use? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system? [ROTATED WITH Q32]

  Total

What if the revenue from the carbon tax was reinvested in energy efficiency improvements that help homes and businesses reduce their electricity use?  Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system? [ROTATED WITH Q32]

Strongly Support 36%
Somewhat Support 32%
Somewhat Oppose 11%
Strongly Oppose 15%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 6%
N 800
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q32. What if the revenue from the carbon tax was reinvested in renewable energy projects like solar or wind energy?  Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system? [ROTATED WITH Q31]

  Total
What if the revenue from the carbon tax was reinvested in renewable energy projects like solar or wind energy?  Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system? [ROTATED WITH Q31] Strongly Support 51%
Somewhat Support 25%
Somewhat Oppose 7%
Strongly Oppose 12%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 6%
N 800
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q34. Now I’m interested in your support for a nationwide tax on the companies that extract fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such an extraction tax?

  Total

Now I’m interested in your support for a nationwide tax on the companies that extract fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such an extraction tax?

Strongly Support 29%
Somewhat Support 23%
Somewhat Oppose 13%
Strongly Oppose 24%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10%
N 798
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q33. What if all of the revenue from the fossil fuel extraction tax was returned to the state where the fuels were extracted? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system?

  Total

What if all of the revenue from the fossil fuel extraction tax was returned to the state where the fuels were extracted?  Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system?

Strongly Support 29%
Somewhat Support 28%
Somewhat Oppose 13%
Strongly Oppose 19%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10%
N 800
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q35-39. Next I have a few questions about renewable energy, like solar or wind power. For each of the following statements I read, please tell me whether you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree with the statement. [ROTATED LIST]

  Renewable energy helps lower levels of air pollution, improving human health. Renewable energy helps the United States be less reliant on foreign energy sources. Renewable energy contributes to economic development for communities such as increased jobs or local tax revenue. Renewable energy helps limit climate change. Renewable energy helps us be good stewards of God’s creation.
Next I have a few questions about renewable energy, like solar or wind power. For each of the following statements I read, please tell me whether you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree with the statement. [ROTATED LIST] Strongly Agree 29% 60% 48% 50% 50%
Somewhat Agree 28% 23% 32% 22% 23%
Somewhat Disagree 13% 4% 6% 7% 4%
Strongly Disagree 19% 7% 7% 12% 10%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10% 6% 7% 9% 13%
N 800 800 799 799 777
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q40. If it required you to pay extra money each year in order for more renewable energy to be produced, how much would you be willing to pay? Would you be willing to pay… [READ LIST]

  Total
If it required you to pay extra money each year in order for more renewable energy to be produced, how much would you be willing to pay? Would you be willing to pay… [READ LIST] Nothing each year 30%
1 to 50 dollars per year 21%
50 to 100 dollars a year 18%
100 to 250 dollars a year 11%
250 to 500 dollars a year 6%
Over 500 dollars a year 4%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10%
N 795
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Finally a few questions about yourself.

Q41. Which of the following categories best describes your racial identity? Are you [READ LIST]

  Total
Finally a few questions about yourself. Which of the following categories best describes your racial identity? Are you [READ LIST] White/Caucasian 60%
African-American 11%
Hispanic 11%
Latino 4%
Asian 4%
Native American 1%
Mixed Race 4%
Other 4%
N 775
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q42. Which of the following categories best describes your religious affiliation? Are you [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following categories best describes your religious affiliation? Are you [READ LIST] Protestant 29%
Catholic 25%
Jewish 2%
Muslim 1%
Hindu 1%
Other Religion (Including Agnostic) 32%
Atheist 6%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 6%
N 769
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q43. Which of these statements comes closest to describing your feelings about the Bible?

  Total
Which of these statements comes closest to describing your feelings about the Bible? The Bible is the actual word of God and is to be taken literally, word for word 32%
The Bible is the inspired word of God but not everything in it should be taken literally, word for word 38%
The Bible is an ancient book of fables, legends, history, and moral precepts recorded by men 22%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 8%
N 784
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q44. Thinking about religious media, how many hours per week do you watch religious television programs or listen to religious radio programs, including ones that present news from a religious perspective? [Coded open end response]

  Total
Thinking about religious media, how many hours per week do you watch religious television programs or listen to religious radio programs, including ones that present news from a religious perspective? [Coded open end response] 0 hours per week 67%
1-6 hours per week 27%
7-13 hours per week 3%
14 hours or more per week 3%
N 800
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q45. What is your highest level of education? [READ LIST]

  Total
What is your highest level of education? [READ LIST] Less Than High School Graduate 5%
High School Graduate 26%
Some College or Technical School 30%
College Graduate 25%
Graduate or Professional Degree 14%
Not Sure (Volunteered) <1%
N 790
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q46. Which of the following best describes your political party affiliation? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following best describes your political party affiliation? [READ LIST] Democrat 30%
Republican 24%
Other Party 7%
Independent 32%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 7%
N n
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q47. Which of the following best describes your political beliefs? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following best describes your political beliefs? [READ LIST] Very Conservative 16%
Somewhat Conservative 23%
Moderate 28%
Somewhat Liberal 15%
Very Liberal 10%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 8%
N 787
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q48. Thinking about important issues facing the country today, overall, would you say you tend to agree with Donald Trump on all or nearly all issues, many but not all issues, a few issues, or no or almost no issues?

  Total
Thinking about important issues facing the country today, overall, would you say you tend to agree with Donald Trump on all or nearly all issues, many but not all issues, a few issues, or no or almost no issues? All or nearly all issues 16%
Many, but not all issues 21%
A few issues 23%
No or almost no issues 35%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 784
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q49. Which of the following categories best describes your family income? Is it [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following categories best describes your family income? Is it [READ LIST] Less than 20,000 12%
20,000 - 40,000 20%
40,000 - 60,000 18%
60,000 - 80,000 17%
80,000 - 100,000 11%
Over 100,000 18%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 724
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q51. Finally to which gender identity do you most identify? [READ LIST]

  Total
Finally to which gender identity do you most identify? [READ LIST] Male 49%
Female 51%
Transgender Male 0%
Transgender Female 0%
You do not identify as male or female <1%
Other (Volunteered) <1%
Not sure (Volunteered) 0%
N 798
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Thank you for your help with the survey. We appreciate your time.