Center for Local, State, and Urban Policy

The National Surveys on Energy and Environment (NSEE)
Fall 2015 Data Tables

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Survey Methodology
N 911 (353 Land Line & 558 Cell Phone)
Margin of Error +/- 3.5%
Fielding Dates September 2, 2015 - September 24, 2015
AAPOR RR3 Response Rate 12%
Data tables below are weighted by Gender, Age, Race, Income, and Education


Table of Contents

    Introduction

  1. Respondent's age
  2. Respondent's place of residence
  3. Global Warming

  4. Belief in global warming
  5. Confidence in belief of global warming
  6. Cause of global warming
  7. Factor that caused belief in global warming
  8. Factors that affected view
  9. Doubt in Global Warming

  10. Confidence in belief of no global warming
  11. Factor that caused belief of no global warming
  12. Factors that affected view
  13. Weather

  14. Weather this past summer
  15. The Clean Power Plan

  16. Support or oppose your state increasing use of wind energy
  17. Support or oppose your state increasing use of solar energy
  18. Support or oppose your state increasing use of natural gas-fired electicity
  19. Support or oppose your state requiring energy efficiency standards
  20. Support or oppose your state allowing cap-and-trade
  21. Cap-and-trade done at which level of government
  22. Preference for your state's approach to emission reduction plan
  23. Fossil Fuel Policy

  24. Support leaving some fossil fuels in the ground
  25. Willingness to Pay Experiment

  26. Willingness to pay
    1. For more renewable energy
    2. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    Worldviews and Religion

  27. Agree or disagree
  28. Pope Francis Encyclical

  29. Support or oppose Pope's call to address climate change
  30. Effect of the encyclical on opinion of the Pope
  31. Effect of the encyclical on belief in global warming
  32. Hydraulic Fracturing

  33. Heard about hydraulic fracturing
  34. Support or oppose hydraulic fracturing
  35. Effect of hydraulic fracturing on
  36. Perception of experts' opinions of risks associated with hydraulic fracturing
  37. "Fracking" as a positive or negative term
  38. Demographics

  39. Racial identity
  40. Religious affiliation
  41. Are you an evangelical Christian?
  42. Highest level of education
  43. Primary source for news
  44. Trust in scientists regarding global warming
  45. Knowledge about global warming
  46. Political party affiliation
  47. Political beliefs
  48. Family income
  49. Gender



Hello. My name is _________ and I'm a student at Muhlenberg College. We are conducting a research project regarding environmental issues in the United States. Would you be able to help us by answering a few questions?

Q1. Thank you. In which category does your current age fall? [READ LIST]

  Total
Thank you. In which category does your current age fall? [READ LIST] 18-29 23%
30-44 23%
45-64 29%
65 and older 24%
Refused, but stated they are 18 or over 1%
N 911
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q2. What state do you currently reside in? [CODED INTO REGIONS]

  Total
What state do you currently reside in? [CODED INTO REGIONS] Northeast 20%
South 37%
Midwest 20%
West 22%
N 911
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q3. Now I would like to ask you a few questions on the issue of global warming. From what you’ve read and heard. Is there solid evidence that the average temperature on earth has been getting warmer over the past four decades?

  Total
Now I would like to ask you a few questions on the issue of global warming. From what you’ve read and heard. Is there solid evidence that the average temperature on earth has been getting warmer over the past four decades? Yes 70%
No 16%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 15%
N 910
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q4. How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is increasing?

  Total
How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is increasing? Very Confident 65%
Fairly Confident 30%
Not Too Confident 3%
Not Confident At All 1%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1%
N 636
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q5. Is the earth getting warmer because of human activity such as burning fossil fuels, or mostly because of natural patterns in the earth’s environment?

  Total
Is the earth getting warmer because of human activity such as burning fossil fuels, or mostly because of natural patterns in the earth’s environment? Human Activity 39%
Natural Patterns 19%
A Combination (Volunteered) 37%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 635
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q6. What is the primary factor that has caused you to believe that temperatures on earth are increasing? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
What is the primary factor that has caused you to believe that temperatures on earth are increasing? [Coded open-end response] Declining Glaciers and Polar Ice 11%
Warmer Temperatures Observed 24%
Weather Changes 12%
Scientific Research/Data 9%
Media Coverage 12%
Declining Species <1%
Human Activity 14%
Natural Patterns 4%
Ocean/Sea-level Rise 1%
Religious Factors 1%
Growing Seasons/Plants <1%
Not Sure/Other 13%
N 637
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q7-14. Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. [ROTATED LIST]

  Declining glaciers and polar ice throughout the globe Warmer temperatures in your area during recent years Computer models that indicate the earth is getting warmer The strength of hurricanes hitting the United States Milder winters in your area Declining numbers of polar bears and penguins Severe droughts in areas across the United States Extreme weather events such as major storms and floods
Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. [ROTATED LIST] Very Large 59% 45% 24% 36% 23% 39% 61% 55%
Somewhat Large 28% 32% 36% 33% 31% 29% 25% 27%
Not Too Large 5% 13% 13% 16% 22% 11% 6% 9%
No Effect 6% 9% 18% 11% 22% 12% 5% 7%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 2% 1% 9% 4% 2% 9% 3% 1%
N 637 637 637 637 637 635 637 637
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q15. How confident are you that the average temperatures on earth are not increasing?  Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident, or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is not increasing?

  Total
How confident are you that the average temperatures on earth are not increasing?  Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident, or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is not increasing? Very Confident 49%
Fairly Confident 42%
Not Too Confident 3%
Not Confident At All 5%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1%
N 141
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q16. What is the primary factor that makes you believe that temperatures on earth are not increasing? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
What is the primary factor that makes you believe that temperatures on earth are not increasing? [Coded open-end response] Personal Observations 32%
Natural Patterns 26%
Not Enough Evidence 10%
Media has Misled 0%
Evidence Disproves 5%
Religious Factors 0%
Political Factors 3%
No Particular Reason 6%
Not Sure/Other 18%
N 141
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q17-19. Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. [ROTATED LIST]

  Your personal observations of weather in your area Scientific evidence that disproves the existence of global warming Reports that climate scientists have distorted data to demonstrate that global warming is occurring
Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) [ROTATED LIST] Very Large 32% 15% 32%
Somewhat Large 19% 28% 19%
Not Too Large 13% 15% 14%
No Effect 34% 37% 28%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1% 5% 7%
N 141 141 141
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Note: Question 20 below was asked of respondents at two different places in the survey. Sample A received this question after Question 2. Sample B received this question after Question 19.

Q20. In general how would you describe the overall weather in your area this past summer? Would you say it was: [SPLIT SAMPLE]

  Sample A Sample B Total
In general how would you describe the overall weather in your area this past summer? Would you say it was: [SPLIT SAMPLE] A lot warmer than usual 33% 34% 34%
Slightly warmer than usual 23% 23% 23%
Slightly cooler than usual 10% 11% 11%
A lot cooler than usual 4% 2% 3%
About the same as usual 27% 28% 28%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 3% 3% 3%
N 456 453 909
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Now I would like to ask you a few questions about government policy designed to reduce green house gas emissions. The federal government has introduced a Clean Power Plan that is designed to reduce greenhouse gases from power plants. The plan lets states pick from a series of options in deciding on how to reduce power plant emissions. For each of the following policy options I read please indicate if you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose your state adopting that policy as a means of reducing emissions? First…

Q21. Increasing the use of wind energy in your state.

  Total
Increasing the use of wind energy in your state. Strongly Support 59%
Somewhat Support 22%
Somewhat Oppose 6%
Strongly Oppose 7%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 8%
N 908
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q22. Increasing the use of solar energy in your state.

  Total
Increasing the use of solar energy in your state. Strongly Support 71%
Somewhat Support 19%
Somewhat Oppose 3%
Strongly Oppose 4%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 910
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q23. Increasing the use of natural gas-fired electricity generation in your state.

  Total
Increasing the use of natural gas-fired electricity generation in your state. Strongly Support 32%
Somewhat Support 29%
Somewhat Oppose 13%
Strongly Oppose 10%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 16%
N 910
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q24. Requiring increased energy efficiency standards in your state.

  Total
Requiring increased energy efficiency standards in your state. Strongly Support 56%
Somewhat Support 27%
Somewhat Oppose 5%
Strongly Oppose 5%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 7%
N 910
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q25. Allowing businesses to buy and sell permits to release greenhouse gases to reduce greenhouse gases. This policy is commonly referred to as cap and trade.

  Total
Allowing businesses to buy and sell permits to release greenhouse gases to reduce greenhouse gases. This policy is commonly referred to as cap and trade. Strongly Support 12%
Somewhat Support 19%
Somewhat Oppose 11%
Strongly Oppose 25%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 34%
N 908
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q26. If a cap and trade system was to be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Power Plan, would you prefer that it be done only within an individual state, by multiple states working together, or with ALL states working together.

  Total
If a cap and trade system was to be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions under the Clean Power Plan, would you prefer that it be done only within an individual state, by multiple states working together, or with ALL states working together. Individual State 12%
Multiple States 13%
All States 54%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 21%
N 904
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q27. Each state is required to adopt its own emission reduction plan under the Clean Power Plan, or have one imposed upon it by the federal government. Which approach to this federal requirement would you like YOUR state to take?

  Total
Each state is required to adopt its own emission reduction plan under the Clean Power Plan, or have one imposed upon it by the federal government. Which approach to this federal requirement would you like YOUR state to take? Submit a state plan 54%
Let the federal government impose its own plan on your state 22%
Refuse to submit a plan and sue the federal government to block the requirement 6%
Other (Volunteered) 2%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 15%
N 910
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q28. Research by the scientific community suggests that in order to avoid more extreme climate change some forms of fossil fuels, like coal, will need to be left in the ground. Do you support or oppose the idea of leaving some fossil fuels, like coal, in the ground in order to avoid more extreme climate change?

  Total
Research by the scientific community suggests that in order to avoid more extreme climate change some forms of fossil fuels, like coal, will need to be left in the ground. Do you support or oppose the idea of leaving some fossil fuels, like coal, in the ground in order to avoid more extreme climate change? Support 66%
Oppose 22%
Don't Know 12%
N 908
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q29. If it required you to pay extra money each year in order ___, how much would you be willing to pay? Would you be willing to pay: (READ LIST) [RANDOMIZE: SPLIT SAMPLE]

  For more renewable energy to be produced To reduce greenhouse gas emissions
If it required you to pay extra money each year in order ___, how much would you be willing to pay? Would you be willing to pay: (READ LIST) [RANDOMIZE: SPLIT SAMPLE] Nothing each year 37% 37%
1 to 50 dollars per year 21% 21%
50 to 100 dollars a year 19% 17%
100 to 250 dollars a year 8% 7%
250 to 500 dollars a year 2% 4%
Over 500 dollars a year 2% 4%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 11% 10%
N 455 446
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q30-33. For each of the statements that I read please tell me if you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree with the statement. First: (Randomize)

  Rich countries like the US have a moral obligation to show international leadership by reducing their greenhouse gas emissions. That the free market cannot by itself address climate change. My religious beliefs affect my views on how government should deal with the issue of global warming. Religious leaders should discuss environmental issues, including global warming, within the context of their faith.
For each of the statements that I read please tell me if you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree with the statement. First: (Randomize) Strongly Agree 50% 26% 9% 14%
Somewhat Agree 25% 37% 14% 35%
Somewhat Disagree 5% 9% 14% 13%
Strongly Disagree 11% 11% 59% 30%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 9% 18% 4% 8%
N 910 910 907 906
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q34. Now I would like to ask a few questions regarding Pope Francis and his positions on the issue of climate change. This summer the Pope released an encyclical that called for action to address the threats posed by climate change. In general do you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose the Pope’s call to action to address climate change?

  Total
Now I would like to ask a few questions regarding Pope Francis and his positions on the issue of climate change. This summer the Pope released an encyclical that called for action to address the threats posed by climate change. In general do you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose the Pope’s call to action to address climate change? Strongly Support 30%
Somewhat Support 31%
Somewhat Oppose 7%
Strongly Oppose 14%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 19%
N 905
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q35. How has the issuing of his encyclical on climate change affected your opinion of the Pope, if at all? Would you say your opinion of the Pope has: (READ LIST)

  Total
How has the issuing of his encyclical on climate change affected your opinion of the Pope, if at all? Would you say your opinion of the Pope has: (READ LIST) Significantly Improved 10%
Somewhat Improved 17%
Somewhat Worsened 4%
Significantly Worsened 2%
No Change (Volunteered) 60%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 8%
N 907
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q36. Which of the following best describes the impact that the Pope’s encyclical on the environment has had on your thinking about global warming? Are you now…(READ LIST)

  Total
Which of the following best describes the impact that the Pope’s encyclical on the environment has had on your thinking about global warming? Are you now…(READ LIST) More convinced that global warming is happening and we should act 15%
Less convinced that global warming is happening and we should act 3%
The Pope's announcement has not changed your thinking about global warming 73%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10%
N 903
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q37. Next I have a few questions about energy production in the United States. How much have you heard about oil and natural gas development through the use of hydraulic fracturing? (READ LIST).

  Total
Next I have a few questions about energy production in the United States. How much have you heard about oil and natural gas development through the use of hydraulic fracturing? (READ LIST). Nothing at all 18%
A little 36%
A moderate amount 17%
A good amount 10%
A great deal 14%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5%
N 910
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q38. In general, would you say that you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose the extraction of natural gas and oil in the United States through the use of hydraulic fracturing?

  Total
In general, would you say that you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose the extraction of natural gas and oil in the United States through the use of hydraulic fracturing? Strongly support 15%
Somewhat support 20%
Somewhat oppose 11%
Strongly oppose 28%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 26%
N 909
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q39-41. For each of the aspects of life in the United States that I mention please indicate if you think the use of hydraulic fracturing is having a positive effect, negative effect, or no effect. First: (ROTATE)

  The Economy Public Health The Environment
For each of the aspects of life in the United States that I mention please indicate if you think the use of hydraulic fracturing is having a positive effect, negative effect, or no effect. First: (ROTATE) Positive Effect 45% 8% 11%
Negative Effect 21% 46% 53%
No Effect 6% 18% 10%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 27% 29% 26%
N 909 911 910
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q42. Now please tell me which of the following statements comes closest to your views: (READ LIST)

  Total
Now please tell me which of the following statements comes closest to your views: (READ LIST) Most experts agree that the risks associated with hydraulic fracking are HIGH 15%
Most experts agree that the risks associated with hydraulic fracking are LOW 7%
Most experts are divided on whether hydraulic fracking poses any risk 56%
Don't Know (Volunteered) 22%
N 910
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q43. In general when you hear the word “fracking” do you consider it a positive or negative term?

  Total
In general when you hear the word “fracking” do you consider it a positive or negative term? Positive 15%
Negative 48%
Neutral/Neither (Volunteered) 20%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 17%
N 909
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Finally a few questions about yourself.

Q44. Which of the following categories best describes your racial identity? Are you [READ LIST]

  Total
Finally a few questions about yourself. Which of the following categories best describes your racial identity? Are you [READ LIST] White/Caucasian 65%
African-American 13%
Hispanic 11%
Latino 3%
Asian 4%
Native American 1%
Mixed Race 3%
Other 2%
N 907
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q45. Which of the following categories best describes your religious affiliation? Are you [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following categories best describes your religious affiliation? Are you [READ LIST] Protestant 38%
Catholic 27%
Jewish 2%
Muslim 1%
Hindu 1%
Other Religion (Including Agnostic) 25%
Atheist 4%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 2%
N 874
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q46. Would you describe yourself as an evangelical Christian?

  Total
Would you describe yourself as an evangelical Christian? (Among those who identified as Protestant) Yes 30%
No 68%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 3%
N 331
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q47. What is your highest level of education? [READ LIST]

  Total
What is your highest level of education? [READ LIST] Less Than High School Graduate 5%
High School Graduate 24%
Some College or Technical School 29%
College Graduate 26%
Graduate or Professional Degree 14%
Not Sure (Volunteered) <1%
N 907
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q48. Which of the following is your primary source for national and world news? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following is your primary source for national and world news? [READ LIST] Television 54%
Newspapers 7%
Talk Radio Programs 2%
Radio News Programs 4%
The Internet 30%
Other (Volunteered) 2%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1%
N 911
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q49. How much do you trust or distrust scientists as a source of information about global warming? Do you strongly trust, somewhat trust, somewhat distrust or strongly distrust scientists as a source of information about global warming?

  Total
How much do you trust or distrust scientists as a source of information about global warming? Do you strongly trust, somewhat trust, somewhat distrust or strongly distrust scientists as a source of information about global warming? Strongly Trust 25%
Somewhat Trust 44%
Somewhat Distrust 14%
Strongly Distrust 9%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 7%
N 909
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q50. How much do you feel you know about global warming? Do you know a lot, a little, very little or nothing about global warming?

  Total
How much do you feel you know about global warming? Do you know a lot, a little, very little or nothing about global warming? A lot 24%
A little 60%
Very little 12%
Nothing 3%
Not sure 2%
N 910
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q51. Which of the following best describes your political party affiliation? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following best describes your political party affiliation? [READ LIST] Democrat 37%
Republican 25%
Other Party 4%
Independent 30%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 868
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q52. Which of the following best describes your political beliefs? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following best describes your political beliefs? [READ LIST] Very Conservative 13%
Somewhat Conservative 20%
Moderate 34%
Somewhat Liberal 16%
Very Liberal 10%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 7%
N 885
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q53. Which of the following categories best describes your family income? Is it [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following categories best describes your family income? Is it [READ LIST] Less than 20,000 11%
20,000 - 40,000 21%
40,000 - 60,000 22%
60,000 - 80,000 20%
80,000 - 100,000 9%
Over 100,000 14%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 660
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Respondent Gender

  Total
Respondent Gender Male 49%
Female 51%
N 911
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Thank you for your help with the survey. We appreciate your time.