Center for Local, State, and Urban Policy

The National Surveys on Energy and Environment (NSEE)
Spring 2014 Data Tables

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Survey Methodology
N 798 (425 Land Line & 373 Cell Phone)
Margin of Error +/- 3.5%
Fielding Dates March 24, 2014 - April 9, 2014
AAPOR RR3 Response Rate 12%
Data tables below are weighted by Gender, Age, Race, Income, and Education


Table of Contents

    Introduction

  1. Respondent's age
  2. Respondent's place of residence
  3. Global Warming

  4. Belief in global warming
  5. Confidence in belief of global warming
  6. Cause of global warming
  7. Factor that caused belief in global warming
  8. Factors that affected view
  9. Doubt in Global Warming

  10. Confidence in belief of no global warming
  11. Factor that caused belief of no global warming
  12. Factors that affected view
  13. Carbon Tax

  14. Carbon tax generally
  15. If it increased energy costs
  16. If revenue neutral
  17. If revenues used for renewable energy R&D
  18. If revenues used to reduce federal deficit
  19. Preferred use of funds
  20. Willingness to Pay

  21. Willingness to pay to prevent temperature rise
  22. Confidence in willingness to pay
  23. Highest amount willing to pay
  24. Discount Rate

  25. $1,000 now vs. $1,020 in 1 year
  26. $1,000 now vs. $1,050 in 1 year
  27. $1,000 now vs. $1,100 in 1 year
  28. $1,000 now vs. $1,200 in 1 year
  29. $1,000 now vs. $1,500 in 1 year
  30. $1,000 now vs. $2,000 in 1 year
  31. Lowest amount willing to take
  32. Demographics

  33. Racial identity
  34. Religious affiliation
  35. Are you an evangelical Christian?
  36. Highest level of education
  37. Primary source for news
  38. Political party affiliation
  39. Political beliefs
  40. Change in personal financial situation
  41. Family income
  42. Understanding of survey
  43. Gender



Hello. My name is _________ and I'm a student at Muhlenberg College. We are conducting a research project regarding environmental issues in the United States. Would you be able to help us by answering a few questions?

Q1. Thank you. In which category does your current age fall? [READ LIST]

  Total
Thank you. In which category does your current age fall? [READ LIST] 18-29 20%
30-44 28%
45-64 30%
65 and older 21%
Refused, but stated they are 18 or over 1%
N 798
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q2. What state do you currently reside in? [CODED INTO REGIONS]

  Total
What state do you currently reside in? [CODED INTO REGIONS] Northeast 20%
South 37%
Midwest 19%
West 23%
N 798
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q3. Next, I would like to ask you a few questions on the issue of global warming. From what you’ve read and heard. Is there solid evidence that the average temperature on earth has been getting warmer over the past four decades?

  Total
Next, I would like to ask you a few questions on the issue of global warming. From what you’ve read and heard. Is there solid evidence that the average temperature on earth has been getting warmer over the past four decades? Yes 55%
No 33%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 12%
N 797
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q4. How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is increasing?

  Total
How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is increasing? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Very Confident 57%
Fairly Confident 37%
Not Too Confident 4%
Not Confident At All 2%
N 435
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q5. Is the earth getting warmer because of human activity such as burning fossil fuels, or mostly because of natural patterns in the earth’s environment?

  Total
Is the earth getting warmer because of human activity such as burning fossil fuels, or mostly because of natural patterns in the earth’s environment? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Human Activity 37%
Natural Patterns 22%
A Combination (Volunteered) 37%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 435
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q6. What is the primary factor that has caused you to believe that temperatures on earth are increasing? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
What is the primary factor that has caused you to believe that temperatures on earth are increasing? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) [Coded open-end response] Declining Glaciers and Polar Ice 9%
Warmer Temperatures Observed 11%
Weather Changes 19%
Scientific Research/Data 11%
Gore Documentary <1%
Media Coverage 7%
Declining Species 1%
Human Activity 17%
Natural Patterns 9%
Ocean/Sea-level Rise 3%
Religious Factors <1%
Population Growth 1%
Growing Seasons/Plants 0%
Not Sure/Other 16%
N 435
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q7-14. Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. [Rotated List]

  Declining glaciers and polar ice throughout the globe Warmer temperatures in your area during recent years Computer models that indicate the earth is getting warmer The strength of hurricanes hitting the United States Milder winters in your area Declining numbers of polar bears and penguins Severe droughts in areas across the United States Extreme weather events such as major storms and floods
Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer.  For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer.” (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) [ROTATED LIST] Very Large 58% 42% 19% 24% 15% 33% 45% 37%
Somewhat Large 24% 29% 32% 42% 24% 36% 40% 44%
Not Too Large 9% 21% 20% 24% 41% 14% 8% 14%
No Effect 7% 7% 24% 8% 20% 12% 5% 5%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 2% 1% 6% 3% 1% 5% 2% <1%
N 435 435 435 435 435 434 435 435
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q15. How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is not increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is not increasing?

  Total
How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is not increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is not increasing? (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) Very Confident 34%
Fairly Confident 58%
Not Too Confident 7%
Not Confident At All 1%
N 263
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q16. What is the primary factor that makes you believe that temperatures on earth are not increasing? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
What is the primary factor that makes you believe that temperatures on earth are not increasing? (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) [Coded open-end response] Personal Observations 38%
Natural Patterns 21%
Not Enough Evidence 8%
Media has Misled 1%
Evidence Disproves 9%
Religious Factors 6%
Political Factors 4%
No Particular Reason 3%
Not Sure/Other 11%
N 264
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q17-19. Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. [ROTATED LIST]

  Your personal observations of weather in your area Scientific evidence that disproves the existence of global warming Reports that climate scientists have distorted data to demonstrate that global warming is occurring
Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) [ROTATED LIST] Very Large 56% 19% 24%
Somewhat Large 25% 23% 18%
Not Too Large 10% 18% 13%
No Effect 10% 38% 43%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 0% 1% 2%
N 264 264 264
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Next I would like to ask for your views on a number of ideas that have been proposed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and stabilize the climate.


Q20.

[Additional text for Sample B: One way to lower greenhouse gas emissions would be a tax on carbon based fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. A carbon fuels tax would provide incentives for people and businesses to use less of these fuels and generate fewer emissions.]

Consider a policy to reduce greenhouse gases by taxing carbon based fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this type of system?

  Sample A Sample B

[Additional text for Sample B: One way to lower greenhouse gas emissions would be a tax on carbon based fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. A carbon fuels tax would provide incentives for people and businesses to use less of these fuels and generate fewer emissions.]

Consider a policy to reduce greenhouse gases by taxing carbon based fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose this type of system?
Strongly Support 10% 12%
Somewhat Support 24% 22%
Somewhat Oppose 10% 13%
Strongly Oppose 52% 46%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5% 7%
N 413 385
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q21. What if the carbon fuels tax significantly lowered greenhouse gases but increased your energy costs by 10 percent a month? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system?

  Total
What if the carbon fuels tax significantly lowered greenhouse gases but increased your energy costs by 10 percent a month? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system? Strongly Support 9%
Somewhat Support 20%
Somewhat Oppose 15%
Strongly Oppose 53%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 3%
N 798
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q22.

[Additional text for Sample B: Unlike other taxes, the main goal of a carbon fuels tax is NOT to raise money for the government. In fact, the government could return the revenue from this tax to the public as an income tax rebate. In this way, the tax could change peoples’ behavior without changing the country’s overall tax burden.]

What if the carbon fuels tax were “revenue neutral,” meaning that every dollar collected by the government would be returned to the public as an income tax rebate. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system?

  Sample A Sample B

[Additional text for Sample B: Unlike other taxes, the main goal of a carbon fuels tax is NOT to raise money for the government. In fact, the government could return the revenue from this tax to the public as an income tax rebate. In this way, the tax could change peoples’ behavior without changing the country’s overall tax burden.]

What if the carbon fuels tax were “revenue neutral,” meaning that every dollar collected by the government would be returned to the public as an income tax rebate. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system?
Strongly Support 23% 19%
Somewhat Support 33% 38%
Somewhat Oppose 10% 10%
Strongly Oppose 30% 28%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5% 5%
N 413 385
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q23.

[Additional text for Sample B: Another idea is to use the revenue from a carbon fuels tax to fund research and development for renewable energy programs. For example, this research might improve the efficiency of wind and solar power, which could reduce greenhouse gas emissions.]

What if revenues from the tax were used to fund research and development for renewable energy programs? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system?

  Sample A Sample B

[Additional text for Sample B: Another idea is to use the revenue from a carbon fuels tax to fund research and development for renewable energy programs. For example, this research might improve the efficiency of wind and solar power, which could reduce greenhouse gas emissions.]

What if revenues from the tax were used to fund research and development for renewable energy programs? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system?
Strongly Support 27% 28%
Somewhat Support 35% 29%
Somewhat Oppose 8% 8%
Strongly Oppose 28% 31%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 2% 4%
N 413 385
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q24.

[Additional text for Sample B: Another idea is to use the revenue from a carbon fuels tax to reduce the federal deficit. This would slow the growth of the national debt, possibly reducing taxes in the future.]

What if revenues from the tax were used to reduce the federal deficit? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system?

  Sample A Sample B

[Additional text for Sample B: Another idea is to use the revenue from a carbon fuels tax to reduce the federal deficit. This would slow the growth of the national debt, possibly reducing taxes in the future.]

What if revenues from the tax were used to reduce the federal deficit? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose, or strongly oppose such a system?
Strongly Support 11% 10%
Somewhat Support 28% 27%
Somewhat Oppose 13% 14%
Strongly Oppose 42% 44%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 6% 5%
N 413 385
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q25. If the federal government enacted a carbon fuels tax, which of the following options would you most prefer: [READ LIST] [ROTATE OPTIONS]

  Total
If the federal government enacted a carbon fuels tax, which of the following options would you most prefer: [READ LIST] [ROTATE OPTIONS] Use all of the funds created by the tax to provide tax rebate checks to all citizens 34%
Use all of the funds created by the tax for renewable energy research 39%
Use all of the funds created by the tax to reduce the federal deficit 17%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10%
N 751
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q26. If nothing is done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the average U.S. temperature is projected to increase by 4 to 11 degrees Fahrenheit by the year 2100. Would you be willing to pay [X] dollars more per month for energy and gasoline if it prevented temperatures from rising?

  $5 $10 $20 $40
If nothing is done to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the average U.S. temperature is projected to increase by 4 to 11 degrees Fahrenheit by the year 2100. Would you be willing to pay [X] dollars more per month for energy and gasoline if it prevented temperatures from rising? Yes 54% 49% 49% 43%
No 43% 40% 39% 53%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 2% 11% 12% 4%
N 199 193 206 191
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q27. How certain are you that you’d actually be willing and able to pay this amount per month to prevent temperatures from rising?

  Total
How certain are you that you’d actually be willing and able to pay this amount per month to prevent temperatures from rising? Very Certain 56%
Fairly Certain 35%
Not Too Certain 5%
Not Certain At All 3%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1%
N 382
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q28. What is the most you'd be willing to pay per month to prevent temperatures from rising? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
What is the most you'd be willing to pay per month to prevent temperatures from rising? [Coded open-end response] Nothing each month 45%
1 to 50 dollars per month 47%
50 to 100 dollars per month 2%
100 to 250 dollars per month <1%
250 to 500 dollars per month <1%
Over 500 dollars per month <1%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 6%
N 798
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



The next few questions do not deal specifically with climate change. Instead, I’d like you to imagine that you have just won a lottery. The lottery will make a one-time payment to you in the future. Each question that I read will describe two possible ways to receive the winnings: Option A or Option B. Option A is to receive a single payment of $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive a larger, single payment one year from today. Although this scenario is hypothetical, try to answer as if you have won a real lottery.


Q29. Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $1,020 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 2 percent.]

Which option would you prefer?

  Sample C Sample D
Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $1,020 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 2 percent.]

Which option would you prefer?
Option A 83% 85%
Option B 13% 11%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4% 4%
N 381 396
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q30. Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $1,050 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 5 percent.]

Which option would you prefer?

  Sample C Sample D
Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $1,050 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 5 percent.]

Which option would you prefer? (Among those who chose Option A in Q29)
Option A 93% 91%
Option B 6% 9%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1% 0%
N 313 333
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q31. Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $1,100 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 10 percent.]

Which option would you prefer?

  Sample C Sample D
Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $1,100 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 10 percent.]

Which option would you prefer? (Among those who chose Option A in Q30)
Option A 91% 88%
Option B 9% 11%
Not Sure (Volunteered) <1% 1%
N 290 303
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q32. Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $1,200 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 20 percent.]

Which option would you prefer?

  Sample C Sample D
Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $1,200 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 20 percent.]

Which option would you prefer? (Among those who chose Option A in Q31)
Option A 88% 84%
Option B 11% 15%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1% 1%
N 264 266
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q33. Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $1,500 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 44 percent.]

Which option would you prefer?

  Sample C Sample D
Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $1,500 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 44 percent.]

Which option would you prefer? (Among those who chose Option A in Q32)
Option A 72% 70%
Option B 25% 29%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 2% 1%
N 232 222
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q34. Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $2,000 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 76 percent.]

Which option would you prefer?

  Sample C Sample D
Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive $2,000 one year from today.

[Additional text for Sample D: Option B reflects an annual interest rate of about 76 percent.]

Which option would you prefer? (Among those who chose Option A in Q33)
Option A 75% 80%
Option B 23% 18%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 2% 1%
N 167 156
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q35. Suppose again that Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive a larger amount of money one year from today. What is the least amount of money you would need one year from today to make you prefer Option B? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
Suppose again that Option A is to receive $1,000 one month from today. Option B is to receive a larger amount of money one year from today. What is the least amount of money you would need one year from today to make you prefer Option B? [Coded open-end response] 1,000 dollars or less 16%
1,001 to 1,499 dollars 20%
1,500 to 2,999 dollars 27%
3,000 to 9,999 dollars 7%
10,000 dollars or more 14%
Other 1%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 14%
N 789
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Finally a few questions about yourself.


Q36. Which of the following categories best describes your racial identity? Are you [READ LIST]

  Total
Finally a few questions about yourself. Which of the following categories best describes your racial identity? Are you [READ LIST] White/Caucasian 65%
African-American 14%
Hispanic 12%
Latino 1%
Asian 3%
Native American 1%
Mixed Race 3%
Other 1%
N 787
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q37. Which of the following categories best describes your religious affiliation? Are you [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following categories best describes your religious affiliation? Are you [READ LIST] Protestant 50%
Catholic 27%
Jewish 1%
Muslim 2%
Hindu 1%
Other Religion (Including Agnostic) 14%
Atheist 4%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1%
N 750
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q38. Would you describe yourself as an evangelical Christian?

  Total
Would you describe yourself as an evangelical Christian? (Among those who identified as Protestant) Yes 24%
No 71%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 369
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q39. What is your highest level of education? [READ LIST]

  Total
What is your highest level of education? [READ LIST] Less Than High School Graduate 5%
High School Graduate 29%
Some College or Technical School 29%
College Graduate 27%
Graduate or Professional Degree 10%
N 789
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q40. Which of the following is your primary source for national and world news? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following is your primary source for national and world news? [READ LIST] Television 56%
Newspapers 9%
Talk Radio Programs 2%
Radio News Programs 2%
The Internet 29%
Other (Volunteered) 2%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1%
N 793
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q41. Which of the following best describes your political party affiliation? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following best describes your political party affiliation? [READ LIST] Democrat 39%
Republican 24%
Other Party 5%
Independent 29%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 2%
N 741
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q42. Which of the following best describes your political beliefs? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following best describes your political beliefs? [READ LIST] Very Conservative 13%
Somewhat Conservative 25%
Moderate 32%
Somewhat Liberal 19%
Very Liberal 7%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 749
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q43. Over the past 12 months, would you say that your personal financial situation has been getting better, been getting worse, or stayed about the same?

  Total
Over the past 12 months, would you say that your personal financial situation has been getting better, been getting worse, or stayed about the same? Better 18%
Worse 25%
About the Same 56%
Not Sure (Volunteered) <1%
N 776
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q44. Which of the following categories best describes your family income? Is it [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following categories best describes your family income? Is it [READ LIST] Less than 20,000 18%
20,000 - 40,000 26%
40,000 - 60,000 20%
60,000 - 80,000 12%
80,000 - 100,000 7%
Over 100,000 13%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 6%
N 581
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q46. Finally, we’d like to know how well you felt you understood this survey. Overall, did you understand the survey questions very well, fairly well, not too well, or not well at all?

  Total
Finally, we’d like to know how well you felt you understood this survey. Overall, did you understand the survey questions very well, fairly well, not too well, or not well at all? Very Well 49%
Fairly Well 40%
Not Too Well 10%
Not Well At All <1%
Not Sure (Volunteered) <1%
N 789
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Respondent Gender

  Total
Respondent Gender Male 49%
Female 51%
N 798
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Thank you for your help with the survey. We appreciate your time.