Center for Local, State, and Urban Policy

The National Surveys on Energy and Environment (NSEE)
Fall 2011 Data Tables

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Survey Methodology
N 887 (639 Land Line & 248 Cell Phone)
Margin of Error +/- 3.5%
Fielding Dates December 4, 2011 – December 21, 2011
AAPOR RR3 Response Rate 11%
Data tables below are weighted by Age, Gender, Education, Race, and Region


Table of Contents

    Introduction

  1. Respondent's age
  2. Respondent's place of residence
  3. Global Warming

  4. Belief in global warming
  5. Confidence in belief of global warming
  6. Cause of global warming
  7. Seriousness of global warming
  8. Concern over global warming
  9. Factor that caused belief in global warming
  10. Factors that affected view
  11. Doubt in Global Warming

  12. Confidence in belief of no global warming
  13. Factor that caused belief of no global warming
  14. Factors that affected view
  15. Global Warming Evidence and Mitigation

  16. Agree or disagree with the following statements
  17. Government Responsibility

  18. Federal government's responsibility to act
  19. State government's responsibility to act
  20. Local government's responsibility to act
  21. Framing of Policy Options to Reduce Emissions

  22. Tax vs. Environmental Fee on gasoline
  23. Limit vs Cap emissions through cap and trade
  24. Surcharge vs. Environmental Levy on electric bills
  25. Cap and Trade

  26. Support or oppose cap and trade
  27. If revenue used for renewable energy
  28. If revenue used to reduce national debt
  29. Carbon Tax

  30. Support or oppose carbon tax
  31. If revenue used for renewable energy
  32. If revenue used to reduce national debt or to reduce taxes
  33. Preferred revenue use for carbon tax
  34. Willingness to Pay

  35. Willingness to pay for more renewable energy
  36. International Climate Treaty

  37. Support or oppose signing international treaty to limit greenhouse gas emissions
  38. If signing treaty increased price of fossil fuels in US
  39. If China and India decided not to sign on to the treaty

    Demographics

  40. Change in personal financial situation
  41. Racial identity
  42. Religious affiliation
  43. Are you an evangelical Christian?
  44. Highest level of education
  45. Primary source for news
  46. Political party affiliation
  47. Political beliefs
  48. Family income
  49. Gender



Hello. My name is _________ and I'm a student at Muhlenberg College. We are conducting a research project regarding environmental issues in the United States. Would you be able to help us by answering a few questions?

Q1. Thank you. In which category does your current age fall? [READ LIST]

  Total
Thank you. In which category does your current age fall? [READ LIST] 18-29 22%
30-44 26%
45-64 30%
65 and older 22%
Refused, but stated they are 18 or over 1%
N 887
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q2. What state do you currently reside in? [CODED INTO REGIONS]

  Total
What state do you currently reside in? [CODED INTO REGIONS] Northeast 18%
South 35%
Midwest 23%
West 25%
N 887
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q3. Next, I would like to ask you a few questions on the issue of global warming. From what you've read and heard. Is there solid evidence that the average temperature on earth has been getting warmer over the past four decades?

  Total
Next, I would like to ask you a few questions on the issue of global warming. From what you've read and heard. Is there solid evidence that the average temperature on earth has been getting warmer over the past four decades? Yes 62%
No 26%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 12%
N 887
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q4. How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is increasing? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming)

  Total
How confident are you that the average temperature on earth is increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is increasing? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Very Confident 30%
Fairly Confident 27%
Not Too Confident 3%
Not Confident At All 1%
Not Sure (Volunteered) <1%
N 550
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q5. Is the earth getting warmer because of human activity such as burning fossil fuels, or mostly because of natural patterns in the earth’s environment?

  Total
Is the earth getting warmer because of human activity such as burning fossil fuels, or mostly because of natural patterns in the earth’s environment? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Human Activity 40%
Natural Patterns 21%
A Combination (Volunteered) 35%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5%
N 550
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q6. In your view is global warming a very serious problem, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not a problem?

  Total
In your view is global warming a very serious problem, somewhat serious, not too serious, or not a problem? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Very Serious 52%
Somewhat Serious 33%
Not Too Serious 12%
Not a Problem 3%
Not Sure (Volunteered) <1%
N 550
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q7. How concerned are you about the issue of global warming?

  Total
How concerned are you about the issue of global warming? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) Very Concerned 41%
Somewhat Concerned 39%
Not Too Concerned 17%
Not Concerned At All 4%
Not Sure (Volunteered) <1%
N 550
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q8. What is the primary factor that has caused you to believe that temperatures on earth are increasing? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
What is the primary factor that has caused you to believe that temperatures on earth are increasing? (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) [Coded open-end response] Declining Glaciers and Polar Ice 13%
Warmer Temperatures Observed 23%
Weather Changes 24%
Scientific Research/Data 8%
Gore Documentary <1%
Media Coverage 11%
Declining Species 2%
Human Activity 8%
Natural Patterns 3%
Ocean / Sea-level Rise 0%
Religious Factors <1%
Population Growth 1%
Growing Season / Plants 0%
Not Sure/Other 6%
N 550
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q9-17. Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer. [ROTATED LIST]

  Declining glaciers and polar ice throughout the globe Warmer temperatures in your area during recent years Computer models that indicate the earth is getting warmer The strength of hurricanes hitting the United States Reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [SPLIT SAMPLE] Report from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [SPLIT SAMPLE] Milder winters in your area Declining numbers of polar bears and penguins Severe droughts in areas across the United States Extreme weather events such as major storms and floods
Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer.  For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that the earth is getting warmer.” (Among those who said there is solid evidence of global warming) [ROTATED LIST] Very Large 56% 39% 18% 31% 13% 12% 24% 46% 35% 43%
Somewhat Large 28% 34% 41% 44% 34% 32% 33% 28% 41% 39%
Not Too Large 10% 15% 20% 15% 19% 22% 25% 11% 13% 8%
No Effect 4% 11% 15% 8% 25% 17% 16% 10% 9% 9%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 2% 1% 6% 3% 9% 16% 1% 5% 2% 1%
N 550 550 550 550 277 272 549 550 550 550

The factors "Reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" and "Reports from the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" were asked as a split sample question. Half of respondents were asked each version of the question.


*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q18. How confident are you that the average temperature on earth are NOT increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident, or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is NOT increasing?

  Total
How confident are you that the average temperature on earth are NOT increasing? Are you very confident, fairly confident, not too confident, or not confident at all that the average temperature on earth is NOT increasing? (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) Very Confident 35%
Fairly Confident 55%
Not Too Confident 6%
Not Confident At All 3%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 2%
N 228
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q19. What is the primary factor that makes you believe that temperatures on earth are not increasing? [Coded open-end response]

  Total
What is the primary factor that makes you believe that temperatures on earth are not increasing? (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) [Coded open-end response] Personal Observations 32%
Natural Patterns 21%
Not Enough Evidence 14%
Media has Misled 2%
Evidence Disproves 5%
Religious Factors 8%
Political Factors 3%
No Particular Reason 6%
Not Sure/Other 9%
N 228
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q20-22. Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. [ROTATED LIST]

  Your personal observations of weather in your area Scientific evidence that disproves the existence of global warming Reports that climate scientists have distorted data to demonstrate that global warming is occurring
Next I would like to read you a list of factors that may or may not have had an effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. For each factor that I mention please indicate if it has had a very large, somewhat large, not too large, or no effect on your view that global warming is not occurring. (Among those who said there is not solid evidence of global warming) [ROTATED LIST] Very Large 40% 13% 19%
Somewhat Large 28% 40% 40%
Not Too Large 16% 14% 12%
No Effect 14% 29% 26%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1% 4% 2%
N 228 228 228
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q23-32. Please identify your level of agreement with the following statements.  For each statement please indicate if you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree. [ROTATED LIST]

  There is not enough scientific evidence to support claims that the earth is getting warmer. Scientists are overstating evidence about global warming for their own interests. Any recent warming on earth is the result of natural trends and not the activities of man. The media is overstating the evidence about global warming. The federal government should stop its current plan to require large industries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Please identify your level of agreement with the following statements.  For each statement please indicate if you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree. [ROTATED LIST] Strongly Agree 22% 18% 26% 23% 17%
Somewhat Agree 23% 26% 24% 28% 17%
Somewhat Disagree 20% 24% 23% 23% 20%
Strongly Disagree 31% 27% 20% 20% 35%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4% 5% 8% 5% 10%
N 887 887 887 887 887

  If global warming does take place, I have confidence that scientists would be able to find ways to alter the climate in a way that limits problems. Attempts to reduce global warming by adding materials to the atmosphere will cause more harm than good for the environment. If human activity leads to global warming then humans will also be able to find ways to reduce temperatures on the planet through atmospheric engineering methods. Instead of trying to stop global warming from occurring we should focus on adapting to a warmer climate. Humans will be able to adapt to a hotter climate without making significant changes to their lifestyles.
Please identify your level of agreement with the following statements.  For each statement please indicate if you strongly agree, somewhat agree, somewhat disagree or strongly disagree. [ROTATED LIST] Strongly Agree 5% 41% 9% 6% 6%
Somewhat Agree 26% 28% 29% 23% 24%
Somewhat Disagree 25% 11% 18% 30% 25%
Strongly Disagree 34% 6% 27% 36% 40%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10% 14% 17% 5% 4%
N 886 887 885 883 886
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q33-35. For each level of government that I mention please tell me if it has a great deal of responsibility, some responsibility or no responsibility for taking actions to reduce global warming.

  The Federal Government State Governments Local Governments
For each level of government that I mention please tell me if it has a great deal of responsibility, some responsibility or no responsibility for taking actions to reduce global warming. A Great Deal of Responsibility 42% 32% 29%
Some Responsibility 31% 41% 39%
No Responsibility 22% 23% 29%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4% 4% 4%
N 886 886 886
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Next I would like to ask you your views on a number of policies that have been proposed to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. For each proposal that I mention please indicate if you view that proposal favorably or unfavorably. First:

Q36. A [X] on each gallon of gasoline purchased by consumers [SPLIT SAMPLE]

  X: Tax X: Environmental Fee
A [X] on each gallon of gasoline purchased by consumers [SPLIT SAMPLE] Favorable 17% 20%
Unfavorable 80% 75%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 3% 5%
N 448 438
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q37. A system where government [X] the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by businesses through the provision of pollution credits and provides those businesses with the right to [Y] or sell those pollution credits. [SPLIT SAMPLE]

  X: Limits
Y: Swap
X: Caps
Y: Trade
A system where government [X] the amount of greenhouse gases emitted by businesses through the provision of pollution credits and provides those businesses with the right to [Y] or sell those pollution credits. [SPLIT SAMPLE] Favorable 32% 35%
Unfavorable 53% 47%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 14% 19%
N 446 437
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q38. A [X] on monthly electric bills [SPLIT SAMPLE]

  X: Surcharge X: Environmental levy
A [X] on monthly electric bills [SPLIT SAMPLE] Favorable 15% 26%
Unfavorable 81% 70%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5% 4%
N 448 437
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q39. There is a proposed system called cap and trade where the government would issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can release. Companies that did not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies would find ways to put out less greenhouse gases because that would be cheaper than buying permits. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system?

  Total
There is a proposed system called cap and trade where the government would issue permits limiting the amount of greenhouse gases companies can release. Companies that did not use all their permits could sell them to other companies. The idea is that many companies would find ways to put out less greenhouse gases because that would be cheaper than buying permits. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system? Strongly Support 18%
Somewhat Support 24%
Somewhat Oppose 16%
Strongly Oppose 28%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 13%
N 884
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q40. What if revenue generated from the sales of permits to businesses was used to develop renewable energy resources? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system?

  Total
What if revenue generated from the sales of permits to businesses was used to develop renewable energy resources? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system? Strongly Support 27%
Somewhat Support 27%
Somewhat Oppose 13%
Strongly Oppose 23%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10%
N 886
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q41. What if revenue generated from the sales of permits to businesses was used to reduce the national debt? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system?

  Total
What if revenue generated from the sales of permits to businesses was used to reduce the national debt? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system? Strongly Support 17%
Somewhat Support 27%
Somewhat Oppose 18%
Strongly Oppose 29%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 9%
N 885
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q42. Another way to lower greenhouse gas emissions would be to increase taxes on carbon based fuels such as coal, oil, gasoline and natural gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system?

  Total
Another way to lower greenhouse gas emissions would be to increase taxes on carbon based fuels such as coal, oil, gasoline and natural gas. Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system? Strongly Support 10%
Somewhat Support 15%
Somewhat Oppose 23%
Strongly Oppose 47%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5%
N 884
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q43. What if revenue generated from a carbon tax was used to develop renewable energy resources? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system?

  Total
What if revenue generated from a carbon tax was used to develop renewable energy resources? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system? Strongly Support 16%
Somewhat Support 22%
Somewhat Oppose 19%
Strongly Oppose 36%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 7%
N 884
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q44. What if revenue generated from a carbon tax was used to [X]? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system? [SPLIT SAMPLE]

  X: Reduce the national
debt
X: Reduce taxes on
personal income
What if revenue generated from a carbon tax was used to [X]? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose this type of system? [SPLIT SAMPLE] Strongly Support 9% 10%
Somewhat Support 20% 22%
Somewhat Oppose 21% 25%
Strongly Oppose 41% 35%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 9% 7%
N 448 436
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q45. If the [X] government enacted a tax on carbon fuels where do you prefer the money generated from the tax be spent? Do you prefer that it be: (READ LIST) [SPLIT SAMPLE]

  X: Federal X: State
If the [X] government enacted a tax on carbon fuels where do you prefer the money generated from the tax be spent? Do you prefer that it be: (READ LIST) [SPLIT SAMPLE] Used to fund renewable energy research 42% 42%
Used to reduce the federal deficit 6% 7%
Returned to citizens through payroll tax deductions 6% 7%
Returned to citizens through tax rebates 9% 14%
Sustain existing government programs 6% 3%
Government should repeal the tax 23% 20%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 7% 6%
N 444 437
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q46. If it required you to pay extra money each year in order for more renewable energy to be produced, how much would you be willing to pay? Would you be willing to pay… [READ LIST]

  Total
If it required you to pay extra money each year in order for more renewable energy to be produced, how much would you be willing to pay? Would you be willing to pay… [READ LIST] Nothing each year 45%
1 to 50 dollars per year 25%
51 to 100 dollars a year 14%
101 to 250 dollars a year 7%
251 to 500 dollars a year 3%
Over 500 dollars a year 2%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 882
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q47. Which of the following best describes your views on the United States signing an international climate treaty that would limit the emission of greenhouse gases. Would you say you strongly support, someone support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose the U.S. signing an international treaty to limit greenhouse gas emissions?

  Total
Which of the following best describes your views on the United States signing an international climate treaty that would limit the emission of greenhouse gases. Would you say you strongly support, someone support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose the U.S. signing an international treaty to limit greenhouse gas emissions? Strongly Support 25%
Somewhat Support 25%
Somewhat Oppose 12%
Strongly Oppose 28%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 10%
N 881
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q48. What if signing the treaty meant that the price of fossil fuels would become more expensive in the United States? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose the U.S. signing such a treaty?

  Total
What if signing the treaty meant that the price of fossil fuels would become more expensive in the United States? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose the U.S. signing such a treaty? Strongly Support 10%
Somewhat Support 19%
Somewhat Oppose 19%
Strongly Oppose 42%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 9%
N 876
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q49. What if China and India decided not to sign on to the treaty? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose the United States signing an international treaty to limit greenhouse gas emissions?

  Total
What if China and India decided not to sign on to the treaty? Would you strongly support, somewhat support, somewhat oppose or strongly oppose the United States signing an international treaty to limit greenhouse gas emissions? Strongly Support 8%
Somewhat Support 19%
Somewhat Oppose 19%
Strongly Oppose 43%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 12%
N 884
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q50. Would you say that your personal financial situation is getting better or getting worse?

  Total
Would you say that your personal financial situation is getting better or getting worse? Getting Better 12%
Getting Worse 52%
Staying the Same (Volunteered) 34%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 2%
N 876
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Finally a few questions about yourself.

Q51. Which of the following categories best describes your racial identity? Are you [READ LIST]

  Total
Finally a few questions about yourself. Which of the following categories best describes your racial identity? Are you [READ LIST] White/Caucasian 64%
African-American 11%
Hispanic 11%
Latino 4%
Asian 4%
Native American 2%
Mixed Race 3%
Other 1%
N 873
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q52. Which of the following categories best describes your religious affiliation? Are you [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following categories best describes your religious affiliation? Are you [READ LIST] Protestant 37%
Catholic 37%
Jewish 3%
Muslim 1%
Hindu 1%
Other Religion (Including Agnostic) 17%
Atheist 2%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 3%
N 856
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q53. Would you describe yourself as an evangelical Christian?

  Total
Would you describe yourself as an evangelical Christian? (Among those who identified as Protestant) Yes 35%
No 61%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 310
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q54. What is your highest level of education? [READ LIST]

  Total
What is your highest level of education? [READ LIST] Less Than High School Graduate 5%
High School Graduate 34%
Some College or Technical School 30%
College Graduate 22%
Graduate or Professional Degree 9%
Not Sure (Volunteered) <1%
N 872
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q55. Which of the following is your primary source for national and world news? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following is your primary source for national and world news? [READ LIST] Television 54%
Newspapers 13%
Talk Radio Programs 3%
Radio News Programs 3%
The Internet 23%
Other (Volunteered) 3%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 1%
N 887
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q56. Which of the following best describes your political party affiliation? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following best describes your political party affiliation? [READ LIST] Democrat 35%
Republican 23%
Other Party 5%
Independent 32%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 4%
N 803
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q57. Which of the following best describes your political beliefs? [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following best describes your political beliefs? [READ LIST] Very Conservative 13%
Somewhat Conservative 23%
Moderate 37%
Somewhat Liberal 15%
Very Liberal 6%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5%
N 801
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Q58. Which of the following categories best describes your family income? Is it [READ LIST]

  Total
Which of the following categories best describes your family income? Is it [READ LIST] Less than 20,000 15%
20,000 - 40,000 28%
40,000 - 60,000 22%
60,000 - 80,000 15%
80,000 - 100,000 9%
Over 100,000 7%
Not Sure (Volunteered) 5%
N 644
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Respondent Gender

  Total
Respondent Gender Male 49%
Female 51%
N 887
*Columns may not sum to 100% due to rounding within cells.



Thank you for your help with the survey. We appreciate your time.